It is commonly recommended that all people with kidney disease restrict the following nutrients:
• Sodium: Sodium is present in many packaged foods and a major component of table salt. When the kidneys are damaged, they are un able to filter out excess sodium. This causes a rise in the blood levels of sodium which can cause a rise in blood pressure It has been recommended to limit sodium to less than 2,000 mg per day.
Processed foods, such as frozen dinners and soups, are very high in sodium. Several sauces, such as barbecue sauce and spices are in sodium as well as potassium. Reading labels will help to avoid these foods.
• Potassium: Potassium plays several important roles in the body, but patients with kidney disease must limit potassium to avoid dangerously high blood levels. The recommendation is to limit potassium to less than 2,000 mg per day Foods high in potassium are tomatoes, vegetables, bananas, oranges, dried fruits and milk, chocolate, nuts and seeds and dairy products.
Low potassium foods include watermelon, apples, berries, fresh beans, lettuce, cucumbers, onions.
• Phosphorus: Phosphorus is present is several foods such as Cola drinks , peanut butter and nuts, liver, and dairy products. . Damaged kidneys cannot remove excess phosphorus. High levels can cause damage to the body.High phosphorus can lead to low calcium lvels and can thus damage the bones Phosphorus is restricted to less than 800–1,000 mg per day in most patients
Foods low in phosphorus include Broccoli, non-dairy creamers
• Protein intake may have to be limited in patients with kidney disease since waste products from protein breakdown cannot be cleared by the damaged kidneys. But if patients with kidney disease are undergoing dialysis ( a treatment that filters and cleans the blood) they will have greater protein needs. The protein requirements of each patient may vary . Hence an individualised approach after consulting the doctor is recommended for each patient. Foods high in protein include eggs, milk , meat and poultry. Fresh beans and vegetables are sources of low protein foods.